Title : Community-based Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing
Introduction: The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellness, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking or behavior (or a combination of these). The high prevalence of mental disorders worldwide is not only an important medical factor but also entails a number of negative social and economic burdens on society and potential impacts on quality of life, productivity, health-related work losses and increased healthcare costs.
Discussion: Mental health and substance use disorders affect 13% of the world’s population. 970 million people worldwide have a mental health or substance abuse disorder. It is estimated mental disorders are attributable to 14.3% of deaths worldwide, or approximately 8 million deaths each year. There are effective treatments for mental disorders and ways to alleviate the suffering caused by them. Access to health care and social services capable of providing treatment and social support is key. Determinants of mental health and mental disorders include not only individual attributes such as the ability to manage one's thoughts, emotions, behaviors and interactions with others, but also social, cultural, economic, political and environmental factors such as national policies, social protection, standards of living, working conditions, and community support. With considering the important role of community and families in the management of chronic diseases, health system in the world has shifted from hospital-based care to community-based care in the last two decades. Psychiatric-mental health nursing (PMHNs) is a specialized area of nursing practice committed to promoting mental health through the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients presenting with mental health problems and psychiatric disorders along a continuum of care. Community-based psychiatric-mental health care covers a wide range of services. PMHNs provide care in partnership with patients within the community as an effective method of responding to the mental health needs of individuals, families, and groups.
Conclusion: Mental illnesses are the main cause for disability worldwide, and contribute substantially to loss of healthy life years. Numerous service delivery models exist for the delivery of community-based mental health services. Community services can play a crucial role in promoting mental health awareness, reducing stigma and discrimination, supporting recovery and social inclusion, and preventing mental disorders.